National Coalition of Homeless Veterans
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Research Briefs

NCHV provides concise, practical briefs on the latest research and reports relevant to HVRP grantees. These research briefs highlight critical insights from new and emerging research, tools, data, and resources from the field that can benefit and improve HVRP grantee programs. These summaries will provide information and additional reading materials that can directly impact HVRP grantee service delivery models.

 

Employment & Training:

Brief 1:  Veterans’ Employment and Training:  Better Targeting, Coordinating, and Reporting Needed to Enhance Program Effectiveness

Brief 2:  Recognizing Work as a Priority in Preventing or Ending Homelessness

Brief 6:  BLS Employment Situation of Veterans - 2012

Brief 11:  The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 Year Old Veterans

Brief 12:  Workforce Reinvestment Act:  Innovative Collaborations between Workforce Boards and Employers Helped Meet Local Needs

Brief 13:  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Employment in Veterans Participating in Veterans Health Administration Compensated Work Therapy

Brief 14:  Employment Status of Patients in the VA Health System:  Implications for Mental Health Services

Brief 15:  Employment Status of Veterans Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

Brief 17:  Implementation of Supported Employment for Homeless Veterans With Psychiatric or Addiction Disorders:  Two-Year Outcomes

Brief 18:  Effects of structured vocational services in ex-offender veterans with mental illness:  6-month follow-up

Brief 27:  A prospective examination of the impact of a supported employment program and employment on health-related quality of life, handicap, and disability among Veterans with SCI

Brief 28:  The impact of prior deployment experience on civilian employment after military service

Brief 46:  A Randomized Controlled Trial of Supported Employment Among Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Brief 55:  Supported Employment - Assessing the Evidence

Brief 70: Veterans Health Administration Vocational Services for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans with Mental Health Conditions

Brief 71: Cognitive Training for Supported Employment: 2-3 Year Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Brief 76: Job Coaching and Success in Gaining and Sustaining Employment Among Homeless People

Brief 82: Vocational Outcomes Among Formerly Homeless Persons With Sever Mental Illness in the ACCESS Program

Brief 83: Effects of Sustained Abstinence Among Treated Substance-Abusing Homeless Persons on Housing and Employment

Brief 86: The Impact of Enhanced Incentives on Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for Dually Diagnosed Veterans

Brief 90: Consumers With Major Depressive Disorders: Factors Influencing Job Placement

Brief 92: Beyond Yellow Ribbon: Are Employers Prepared to Hire, Accomodate, and Retain Returning Veterans with Disabilities

Brief 97: Self-Esteem as an Outcome Measure in Studies of Vocational Rehabilitation for Adults with Severe Mental Illness

Brief 105: Civilian Employment Among Recently Returning Afghanistan and Iraq National Guard Veterans

Brief 106: Are Male Veterans at Greater Risk for Nonemployment than Nonveterans?

Brief 108: The Impact of Financial Resources on Soldier’s Well-Being

Supportive Services:

Brief 3:  The Veteran Supported Education Service Treatment Manual (VetSEd)

Brief 4:  Findings from the District of Columbia Traumatic Brain Injury Needs and Resources Assessment

Brief 5:  Inmate Reentry Programs:  Enhanced Information Sharing Could Further Strengthen Coordination and Grant Management

Brief 20:  Stand Down - Overview, Models, and Funding Sources

Brief 30:  A wraparound treatment engagement intervention for homeless veterans with co-occurring disorders

Brief 31:  Effectiveness of Permanent Housing Program FY 2012 Report

Brief 42:  Military Sexual Trauma Among Homeless Veterans

Brief 43:  Social Work and Veterans in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Stigma as a Barrier to Accessing Mental Health Care

Brief 45:  Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, levels of social support, and emotional hiding in returning veterans

Brief 48:  Housing Outcomes of Veterans Following Exit from the Supportive Services for Veteran Families (SSVF) Program

Brief 49: Cognitive Impairment as Barrier to Engagement in Vocational Services Among Veterans With Severe Mental Illness

Brief 50:  Transitioning Home: Comprehensive Case Management for America’s Heroes

Brief 51:  The Potential for Health-Related Uses of Mobile Phones and Internet with Homeless Veterans: Results from a Multisite Survey

Brief 52:  Preliminary Evaluation of PTSD Coach, a Smartphone App for Post-Traumatic Stress Systems

Brief 54:  Health and well-being of homeless veterans participating in transitional and supported employment: Six-month outcomes

Brief 56:  Use of group treatment among case managers in Department of Veterans Affairs supported housing program

Brief 58: Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Brief 61: SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach

Brief 62: Predictors of Homelessness Following Exit from the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

Brief 65: Trauma-Informed Care: A Paradigm Shift Needed for Services With Homeless Veterans

Brief 66: Health Care Utilization Prior to Loss to Care Among Veterans With Serious Mental Illness

Brief 67: Latent Homeless Risk Profiles of a National Sample of Homeless Veterans and Their Relation to Program Referral and Admission Patterns

Brief 68: Trust in Health Care Providers: Factors Predicting Trust Among Homeless Veterans Over Time

Brief 69: Differences in health-related quality of life in rural and urban veterans

Brief 72: Evaluating the Impact of Dental Care on Housing Intervention Program Outcomes Among Homeless Veterans

Brief 74: Challenges Associated With Screening for Traumatic Brain Injury Among US Veterans Seeking Homeless Services

Brief 75: Telemedicine - A Cost-Reducing Means of Delivering Psychotherapy to Rural Combat Veterans with PTSD

Brief 77: Financial Motivation to Work Among People With Psychiatric Disorders

Brief 78: Trauma-Informed Care for Veterans Experiencing Homelessness: Building Workforce

Brief 79: Trauma-Informed Care for Veterans Experiencing Homelessness: Meeting the Needs of Women Veterans

Brief 80: Trauma-Informed Care for Veterans Experiencing Homelessness: An Organization-Wide Framework

Brief 81: The Need for Social Workers

Brief 85: Employment Experience of Homeless Young Adults: Are they different for youth with a history of foster care? 

Brief 88: Outcomes of Critical Time Intervention Case Management of Homeless Veterans After Psychiatric Hospitalization

Brief 95: Risk Factors for Homelessness Among Veterans

Brief 98: Homelessness in a National Sample of Incarcerated Veterans in State and Federal Prisons

Brief 102: Identifying Mental and Physical Health Correlates of Homelessness Among First-Time and Chronically Homeless Veterans

Brief 112: Tailoring Care to Vulnerable Populations by Incorporating Social Determinants of Health: the Veterans Health Administration’s Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team Program

Brief 114:  Needing Primary Care But Not Getting It: The Role of Trust, Stigma, and Organizational Obstacles Reported by Homeless Veterans

Brief 115: Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injuries Sustained Among Veterans Seeking Homeless Services

Housing:

Brief 21:  Best Practices for HVRP Grantees - Housing Services

Brief 25:  Requiring Sobriety at Program Entry:  Impact on Outcomes in Supported Transitional Housing for Homeless Veterans

Brief 38:  Housing First Implementation Brief - April 2014

Brief 59: Introducing Housing First in a Rural Service System: A Multistakeholder Perspective

Brief 60: Estimating Cost Savings Associated With HUD-VASH Placement

Brief 63: Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals with Severe Alcohol Problems

Brief 84: Rates and Risk Factors for Homelessness After Successful Housing in a Sample of Formerly Homeless Veterans 

Brief 116: Unsheltered Homelessness Among Veterans: Correlates and Profiles

Female Veterans:

Brief 7:  Transitioning to the Civilian Workforce:  Issues Impacting the Reentry of Rural Women Veterans

Brief 22:  Homeless Female Veterans - Overview of Current Literature and Research

Brief 23:  Risk Factors for Homelessness among Women Veterans

Brief 29:  Barriers to care for women veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms

Brief 34:  "Homelessness and Trauma Go Hand-in-Hand":  Pathways to Homelessness among Women Veterans

Brief 37:  Homeless Women Veterans:  Actions Needed to Ensure Safe and Appropriate Housing

Brief 87: Impact of Seeking Safety Program on Clinical Outcomes Among Homeless Female Veterans with Psychiatric Disorders

Brief 103: Military and Mental Health Correlates of Unemployment in a National Sample of Women Veterans

Brief 104: Being a Female Veteran: A Grounded Theory of Coping With Transitions

Brief 107: Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

Brief 109: The Relationship Between Employment and Veteran Status, Disability, and Gender from 2004-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BFRSS)

Brief 110: Association between Women Veterans' Experiences with VA Outpatient Healthcare and Designation as Women's Health Provider in Primary Care Clinics

Brief 111: Barriers to Psychosocial Services among Homeless Women Veterans

OIF/OEF Veterans:

Brief 16:  Trends and Risk Factors for Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care, 2002-2008

Brief 33:  Student Veterans:  A National Survey Exploring Psychological Symptoms and Suicide Risk

Brief 36:  Factors associated with suicidal ideation in OEF/OIF veterans

Brief 39:  Gender Differences Among Veterans Deployed in Support of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

Brief 40:  Psychiatric Status and Work Performance of Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

Brief 41:  Financial Well-Being and Post-Deployment Adjustment among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

Brief 44:  Traumatic Brain Injury, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Pain Diagnoses in OIF/OEF/OND Veterans

Brief 64: Risk of incarceration and other characteristics of Iraq and Afghanistan era veterans in state and federal prisons

Brief 73: Homelessness and Money Mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

Brief 89: Homeless Veterans Who Served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender Differences, Combat Exposure, and Comparisons with Previous Cohorts of Homeless Veterans

Brief 91: Percieved Stigma and Barriers to Mental Health Care Utilization Among OEF-OIF Veterans

Brief 96: Homecoming of Soldiers Who Are Citizens

Brief 99: Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts

Brief 101: A New Disability for Rehabilitation Counselors

Brief 113: Disability, employment, and income: are Iraq/Afghanistan-era U.S. Veterans Unique?

Aging Veterans:

Brief 19:  Perceptions of Homelessness in Older Homeless Veterans, VA Homeless Program Staff Liaisons, and Housing Intervention Providers

Brief 47:  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans

Brief 57: The Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Rural Demonstrations Project: A Symptom-Based Approach for Serving Older Veterans in Remote Geographical Settings

Brief 93: Correlates of Frailty Among Homeless Adults

Brief 94: Constructing and Identifying Predictors of Frailty among Homeless Adults – A Latent Variable Structural Equations Model Approach

Brief 100: Older Adults Facing Worst Case Housing Needs and Homelessness: Recent Trends and Policy Implications


Legal:

Brief 24Helping Veterans With Mental Illness Overcome Civil Legal Issues: Collaboration Between a Veterans Affairs Psychosocial Rehabilitation Center and a Nonprofit Legal Center

Brief 26:  The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Justice programs and the sequential intercept model:  case examples in national dissemination of intervention for justice-involved veterans

Brief 53:  Critical Concerns in Iraq/Afghanistan War Veteran-Forensic Interface: Veterans Treatment Court as Diversion in Rural Communities


Business:

Brief 9:  The Business Case for Product Philanthropy

Brief 32:  Business Strategies that Work:  A Framework for Disability Inclusion

 

Other:

Brief 8:  The Age Structure of Contemporary Homelessness

Brief 10:  For Many Injured Veterans, A Lifetime of Consequences

Brief 35:  Los Angeles County's Enterprise Linkages Project:  An Example of the Use of Integrated Data Systems in Making Data-Driven Policy and Program Decisions

 


Brief 1: Veterans’ Employment and Training: Better Targeting, Coordinating, and Reporting Needed to Enhance Program Effectiveness

  • Quick Takeaways
    • To ensure government resources are used efficiently, the Secretaries of Labor, VA, and DoD should incorporate DoD’s employment assistance initiatives into the agreements that guide interagency coordination.
    • To enhance transparency and accountability for achieving results, the Secretary of Labor should consistently report both performance goals and associated performance outcomes for each of its veterans’ employment and training programs.
    • To assess veterans’ employment programs’ effectiveness, Secretaries of Labor and VA should, to the extent possible, determine the extent to which veterans’ employment outcomes result from program participation or are the result of other factors.
    • Labor should ensure that DVOP’s provide veterans who have significant barriers to employment with the array of intensive services they need to succeed.
    • Labor should focus LVER’s time on cultivating relationships with employers in the community.
    • Labor should ensure that the rest of the staff at federally funded American Job Centers across the country understands their responsibility to veterans.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Government Accountability Office. (2012). Veterans’ Employment and Training: Better Targeting, Coordinating, and Reporting Needed to Enhance Program Effectiveness. Washington, DC: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-29.

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Brief 2: Recognizing Work as a Priority in Preventing or Ending Homelessness

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Rapid access to jobs, “no wrong door to employment,” improves long-term stability of homeless individuals.
    • Job training and employment programs work best for homeless people when they are combined with supportive services and housing.
    • Provide jobs that include flexible readiness criteria, schedules, and tasks that can engage homeless job seekers who want to work quickly and may help them shun lengthy work preparation programs.
    • Continua of Care plans and Ten-Year Plans to End Homelessness must include strategies to help homeless people meet their financial needs through income support programs and through employment and training services.
    • Cross-training of staff develops practitioner alliances and increases the efficiency of programs in each system. Collaborations among diverse partners with diverse interests can leverage more in the way of resources, knowledge, and expertise than any one sector working alone.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Shaheen, Gary and Rio, Rohn. (2007). Recognizing Work as a Priority in Preventing or Ending Homelessness. J Primary Prevent, 28, 341–358. doi: DOI 10.1007/s10935-007-0097-5 | Link to report

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Brief 3: The Veteran Supported Education Service Treatment Manual (VetSEd)

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Evidence-based Supported Education (SEd) programs developed for working with individuals with serious mental illness can be adapted to working with young student veterans with mental health conditions.
    • Case management and peer support activities should be provided separately but as part of a veteran-centric coordinated case management model that includes all relevant individuals in the veteran's education plan.
    • While completing education and training programs, income plans should be flexible, allowing the veteran to engage in full-time or part-time work depending on need, interest, and time management skills.
    • Some outreach strategies have shown promise in reaching and maintaining contact with younger veterans, including cautious and selective usage of social media and Assertive Outreach strategies.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Ellison, M.L., Mueller, L., Henze, K., Corrigan, P., Larson, J., Kieval, N.E., Sawh. L., & Smelson, D. (2012). The Veteran Supported Education Treatment Manual (VetSEd). Bedford, MA: ENRM Veterans Hospital, Center for Health Quality, Outcomes, and Economic Research: www.va.gov/HOMELESS/docs/Center/VetSEd_Manual_Version_FINAL.pdf

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Brief 4: Findings from the District of Columbia Traumatic Brain Injury Needs and Resources Assessment

  • Quick Takeaways
    • 64.8 percent homeless participants reported a history of head trauma.
    • 150,000-180,000 U.S. military personnel has returned with at least a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).
    • Employment is necessary to help TBI survivors regain their independence; broader array of employment opportunities needed, including volunteer opportunities.
    • The vast majority (85 percent) of the homeless adults with a history of brain injury was found to be unemployed.
    • Lack of training among service-providers showed to be a major gap.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: DC Department of Health (August 2010). Findings from the District of Columbia Traumatic Brain Injury Needs and Resources Assessment of: Homeless Adult Individuals, Homeless Shelter Providers, TBI Survivor and Family Focus Group, TBI Service Agency/Organizations. Washington, DC: http://www.nchv.org/images/uploads/DC_TBI_Report.pdf

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Brief 5: Inmate Reentry Programs: Enhanced Information Sharing Could Further Strengthen Coordination and Grant Management

  • Quick Takeaways
    • More than two-thirds of state prisoners are rearrested for a new offense within 3 years of release, and about half are re-incarcerated.
    • The majority of inmates need assistance with things such as job skills, vocational training, education, substance abuse treatment, and parenting skills.
    • Between 40 and 54 percent of former inmates were not able to obtain employment within 7 to 10 months of release.
    • Federal Interagency Reentry Council publishes research and reports to help programs enact promising practices into their reentry programs, including veterans-focused materials.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Government Accountability Office. (2012). Inmate Reentry Programs: Enhanced Information Sharing Could Further Strengthen Coordination and Grant Management. Washington, DC: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-93.

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Brief 6: BLS Employment Situation of Veterans - 2012

  • Quick Takeaways
    • 21.2 million veterans ages 18 and over in 2012
    • Approximately 35 percent of Gulf War era II veterans reported that they had served in Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. These veterans had an unemployment rate of 10.9 percent, not statistically different from Gulf War era II veterans who served elsewhere (11.3 percent).
    • About 3 million veterans, or 14 percent of the total, had a service-connected disability.
    • 9.9 percent unemployment for Gulf War era II veterans
    • 20.4 percent unemployment for ages 20-24 veterans, compared to 15.0 percent for nonveterans
    • 8.3 percent unemployment for all female veterans, compared to 7.7 percent for female nonveterans
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). 2012 Employment Situation of Veterans. Washington, DC: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/vet.toc.htm.

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Brief 7: Transitioning to the Civilian Workforce: Issues Impacting the Reentry of Rural Women Veterans

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Women veterans seeking employment in rural areas often face several challenges, such as geographical barriers, limited employment opportunities, and a lack of childcare resources within their respective communities.
    • These women veterans may face additional challenges from a complex set of issues, including untreated physical and psychological disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from combat, Military Sexual Trauma (MST), or other traumas associated with military service.
    • Other struggles women veterans face include negative experiences during military service, self-perceptions that they are not veterans if they did not serve in combat, and lack of awareness by employers and the larger community that women are veterans and bring valuable leadership skills to the workplace.
    • Recommendations to improve programs include redesigning jobs and expanding telecommuting opportunities, establish and track rural employment metrics, reevaluate and re-communicate the role and structure of the state DVA offices, and form veteran-centered partnerships and collaborations.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Renteria Szelwach, C., Steinkogler, J., Badger, E.R., and Muttukumaru, R. Transitioning to the Civilian Workforce: Issues Impacting the Reentry of Rural Women Veterans. Washington, DC: Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 26(3), 2011, pp. 83-112. | Link to report

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Brief 8: The Age Structure of Contemporary Homelessness

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Single adults who are homeless are mainly comprised of persons born during the latter part of the baby boom era whose high risk for homelessness has continued as they have aged.
    • Adults in sheltered families show no indication of any progressive aging of the heads of households.
    • The health problems faced by the single adult homeless population means that health care providers will increasingly be required to provide care for chronic conditions.
    • The homeless assistance system needs to be prepared to address the housing needs of an aging homeless population.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Culhane, D.P., Metraux, S., Byrne, T., Stino, M., and Bainbridge, J. The Age Structure of Contemporary Homelessness: Evidence and Implications for Public Policy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Vol. 00, No. 0, 2013, pp. 1-17. | Link to report

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Brief 9The Business Case for Product Philanthropy

  • Quick Takeaways
    • A well-managed philanthropy program can enhance a corporation’s public image, which in turn encourages employee engagement and motivation, attracts customers, and cultivates a friendlier regulatory environment.
    • Stockholders value philanthropy programs due to their positive impact on the company’s bottom line, particularly when businesses communicate the financial and employee performance value of philanthropy programs. 
    • Philanthropic programs can serve as “team building” activities that can offer employees the opportunity to meet some of their psychosocial needs in the workplace as well as gain functional skills through taking on extra responsibility.
  • Download the full brief.

​Report: Ross, Justin M. and McGiverin-Bohan, Kellie L. (2012). The Business Case for Product Philanthropy. School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN. | Link to report

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Brief 10: For Many Injured Veterans, A Lifetime of Consequences

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Veterans who suffered major service-related injuries are more than twice as likely as their veteran counterparts to say they had difficulties readjusting to civilian life.
    • Veterans who suffered major service-related injuries are almost three times as likely as other veterans to report they have suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
    • Among all veterans, those who were seriously injured while serving are less likely than other veterans to be employed full time and more likely not to have a job.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Morin, Rich. (2011). For Many Injured Veterans, A Lifetime of Consequences. Pew Research Center, Washington, DC: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/11/08/for-many-injured-veterans-a-lifetime-of-consequences/.

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Brief 11: The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 Year Old Veterans

  • Quick Takeaways
    • High levels of unemployment arise from multiple causes, including lack of job opportunities and lengthened search for jobs.
    • The basic employment pattern show increasing employment and decreasing unemployment for all veterans over time.
    • Many veterans return to the military as their main employer.
  • Download the full brief.

​Report: Dan Black and Julia Lane; Report on Task 1: The Labor Market Trajectories of 20-24 year old veterans. NORC, Chicago, IL: http://www.dol.gov/vets/research/trajectories_rev.pdf.

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Brief 12: Workforce Reinvestment Act: Innovative Collaborations between Workforce Boards and Employers Helped Meet Local Needs

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Six factors that contribute most to collaboration are: focusing on urgent needs, leadership, leveraging resources, employer-responsive services, minimizing administrative burden, and demonstrating results.
    • Challenges associated with collaboration stem from: 1) employers having limited interaction with and knowledge of local workforce boards, and 2) workforce boards lacking the time and resources necessary to reach out to employers.
    • Workforce-related initiatives should look to fund their projects using multiple sources. Of the 14 initiatives examined in this report, all relied on funding from more than one provider.
    • The GAO report recommended that DOL provide a better way of finding information on resources and funding opportunities for local organizations with workforce initiatives. Since the writing of this report, Labor’s workforce systems website, www.Workforce3one.org, looks to have been updated to offer a repository of information on workforce-related issues.
  • Download the full brief.

​Report: Government Accountability Office. (2012). Workforce Reinvestment Act: Innovative Collaborations between Workforce Boards and Employers Helped Meet Local Needs. Washington, DC: http://www.gao.gov/assets/590/587809.pdf.

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Brief 13: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Employment in Veterans Participating in Veterans Health Administration Compensated Work Therapy

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Individuals with substance use diagnoses or who were homeless at program entry were more likely to be employed at discharge, while receipt of public support income and severe mental illness decreased the likelihood of being competitively employed.
    • Veterans with a history of homelessness when last in the community had an increased likelihood of competitive employment at discharge.
    • Veterans that served in the post-Vietnam era and had PTSD were less likely than those with PTSD who served in the Vietnam era to work competitively at discharge.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Resnick SG, and RA Rosenheck. 2008. "Posttraumatic stress disorder and employment in veterans participating in Veterans Health Administration Compensated Work Therapy". Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 45 (3): 427-35.

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Brief 14: Employment Status of Patients in the VA Health System: Implications for Mental Health Services

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Veterans in the study with bipolar disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, or a substance use disorder were more likely to be unemployed, disabled, or retired than employed.
    • Disabled VA patients had the highest rates of service-connected disabilities and the greatest number of medical comorbidities.
    • Rates of all mental disorders were highest in the disabled population; substance use disorders were highest among the unemployed.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Zivin K, AS Bohnert, B Mezuk, MA Ilgen, D Welsh, S Ratliff, EM Miller, M Valenstein, and AM Kilbourne. 2011. "Employment status of patients in the VA health system: implications for mental health services". Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.). 62 (1): 35-8.

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Brief 15: Employment Status of Veterans Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Only 28% of veterans reported any earnings and the same percentage reported any days of paid work during the past 30 days.
    • Many persons in the sample were employed throughout the study; however, substantial turnover occurred.
    • Of the 2,072 veterans in the sample receiving a disability pension, 17% had any days of paid work at baseline, slightly lower than the percentage of the overall sample (28%), but still indicating labor market engagement in this population.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Humensky JL, N Jordan, KT Stroupe, and D Hynes. 2013. "Employment status of veterans receiving substance abuse treatment from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs". Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.). 64 (2): 177-80.

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Brief 16: Trends and Risk Factors for Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care, 2002-2008

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Active duty veterans younger than 25 years had higher rates of PTSD and alcohol and drug use disorder diagnoses compared with active duty veterans older than 40 years.
    • The youngest active duty veterans (aged 16-24 years) were at higher risk for all new mental health diagnoses and problems (except depression) than were active duty veterans older than 40 years.
    • The analyses showed a distinct difference based on age in mental health diagnoses between active duty and National Guard and Reserve veterans entering the VA health care.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Charles R. Marmar, et al. "Trends and Risk Factors for Mental Health Diagnoses Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Using Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care, 2002-2008." American Journal Of Public Health 99, no. 9 (September 2009): 1651-1658. SPORTDiscus with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed June 25, 2013)

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Brief 17Implementation of Supported Employment for Homeless Veterans With Psychiatric or Addiction Disorders: Two-Year Outcomes

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Measures at both the client-level and site level suggest IPS implementation was successful at most, but not all, sites.
    • Comparison of participants in the two phases on baseline measures showed that participants in phase 2 had fewer lifetime years of homelessness, were more likely to have worked in the previous three years (but not in the previous 30 days), and had fewer psychiatric symptoms and better physical health.
    • Although at follow-up veterans in phase 2 had a greater average number of days housed than veterans in phase 1, there were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes on any other measure (mental health status, psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, general health, and social support).
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Robert Rosenheck, M.D., Alvin Mares, Ph.D.; Implementation of Supported Employment for Homeless Veterans With Psychiatric or Addiction Disorders: Two-Year Outcomes. Psychiatric Services. 2007 Mar;58(3):325-333.

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Brief 18: Effects of structured vocational services in ex-offender veterans with mental illness: 6-month follow-up

  • Quick Takeaways
    • The chances of getting hired are approximately 40 percent worse for those with a felony history than for those without and unemployment rates have been found to be 15-25 percent higher.
    • Actual rates of homelessness for those released are as high as 50 percent for state prisoners released to urban areas. In dually diagnosed populations, employment, not chronic mental illness, was predictive of prolonged homelessness.
    • The results demonstrate that staff-led, formatted vocational group programs with manuals can improve vocational outcomes for veterans with felonies.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: LePage JP, Lewis AA, Washington EL, Davis B, Glasgow A. Effects of structured vocational services in ex-offender veterans with mental illness: 6-month follow-up. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50(2):183–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2011.09.0163

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Brief 19: Perceptions of Homelessness in Older Homeless Veterans, VA Homeless Program Staff Liaisons, and Housing Intervention Providers

  • Quick Takeaways
    • Over 15% of the homeless are 51 years of age and older, and the numbers of homeless over the age of 65 are expected to double by 2050.
    • The report identified 10 major themes from an analysis of the transcripts, four from the veterans’ focus groups and six from the VA staff liaisons and housing intervention providers.
    • Compared with younger veterans, older veterans have less social support, greater employment challenges, more significant health care needs, and motivation to change.
  • Download the full brief.

Report: Victor A. Molinari and Lisa M. Brown and Kathryn A. Frahm and John A. Schinka et. al. "Perceptions of Homelessness in Older Homeless Veterans, VA Homeless Program Staff Liaisons, and Housing Intervention Providers." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 24, no. 2 (2013): 487-498. http://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed June 25, 2013).

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Brief 20: Stand Down - Overview, Models, and Funding Sources

  • This brief explores the background, outcomes, development models, ideas for services and partners, and funding resources. In addition, throughout the brief are links to additional reports and materials to learn more. Stand Down is designed to help the nation’s 57,849 homeless veterans on any given night “combat” life on the streets through a “hand up, not hand out” philosophy. Events include a wide array of services and resources depending on local capacity and the needs of the veterans who attend.
  • Download the full brief.

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Brief 21: Best Practices for HVRP Grantees - Housing Services

  • One of the core services to help organizations reach employment goals is access to appropriate and progressive housing alternatives that meet the needs of the veteran. HVRP grantees recognize the reciprocal, beneficial relationship between employment and housing for veterans participating in their programs. Participants must have access to affordable housing that meets their specific needs, and grantees meet this need

1730 M Street NW, Suite 705  |  Washington, DC  |  20036  |  t-f. 1.800.VET.HELP  |  v. 202.546.1969  |  f. 202.546.2063  |  info@nchv.org